Why need Computer Security?

Why we need Computer Security?

The first and obvious answer everyone gets in mind is "To protect your computer". But, we need to understand more and this tutorial takes simple steps to understand, prevent, rectify, and remove viruses. Before that we need to know what are Viruses and how it effects your system.

What is a Virus?


A virus is a small program which infects a system and travels through another system spreading your personal details like Credit Card PIN, Bank Account numbers and other sensitive information. The main aim of a virus is to spread information from one computer to another and it can propagate by means of email, instant messages, mail attachments with images, greeting cards, media files, executable file, etc. It uses Internet as main source to spread the data.

Once a virus is installed in your computer, you have to remove it by an Antivirus or Security Program, preventing further contamination.

Common types of Transmission media or hosts:
  • Executable files like .EXE, .COM, .ELF
  • Volume Boot Records of Floppy Disks.
  • Master Boot Record of a hard disk drive.
  • Script or Programming Files.
  • Autorun scripts, which are run automatically stored in USB drives.
  • Microsoft Office documents.
  • PDF, HTML files.
Most common types of Viruses and other dangerous intrusion programs:

Resident Viruses - Permanent stays in RAM memory which disturbs your system operations, corrupt files, etc.

Multipartite Viruses - Hide in memory and slowly moves to the boot sector of hard disk drive and corrupts executable files.

Direct Action Viruses - Replicates or duplicated or makes copy of itself, when executed. Serious action is performed when specific criteria is matched. Located in Root directory of hard disk.

Overwrite Viruses - Deletes those files once they have infected. Deleting the infected file deletes virus and thus you'll lose the original data.

Boot Virus - Affects the boot sector of a floppy or hard disk. Stored at the boot (start) memory of the computer and an action is performed when the computer starts booting.

Macro Virus - Infect files that are created in certain applications that contain macros.

Directory Virus - An executable program that changes the path of your files and it is not possible to relocate your files. Dangerous for those who stored sensitive information in your hard disk.

Polymorphic Virus - Encrypts and changes themselves every time they infect your computer. Impossible to find and delete them.

File Infectors - Infects executable files or programs directly or indirectly, thus damaging your files heavily with programmed actions.

Encrypted Viruses - Consists of encrypted dangerous code and scripts which run on your computer and not that easy to decrypt by any security program.

Companion Viruses - They accompany with existing files that stay in your computer hard disk.

Network Virus - As the name says, this virus is spread through the Internet and duplicates themselves, spreads through various systems & IP's.

Non-Resident Viruses - Similar to Resident Viruses, duplicates or replicates themselves.

Stealth Viruses - Try to trick anti-virus software and hides from antivirus programs.

Sparse Infectors - Thinly dispersed viruses which are created to hide from detection.

Spacefiller (Cavity) Viruses - Some programs are stored as empty files with data in them. Space filler viruses attempts to install the programmed code and starts infecting.

FAT Virus - Attacks the FAT file system, preventing access to important files that store sensitive information.

Worms - Strictly not a virus, but similar to a virus. Ability to duplicate itself, and not very harmful to our systems. Antivirus tools could remove this viruses so easily when detected.

Trojans or Trojan Horses - Another Dangerous virus which do not reproduce nor self-replicates but when infected it produces severe actions.

Logic Bombs - This type of virus do not duplicate themselves. But their aim is to attack or destroy the information when certain conditions are met.

Precautions that help to prevent and remove viruses from your computer:
  • When you bring a new computer to your home, please try to install a good Antivirus software, Firewall Software, Spyware Remover and PC Cleaner. This is compulsory to make your system more secure.
  • Install all available security patches that comes with your operating system(anything) and enable for automatic updates.
  • Install a firewall beside you basic OS firewall. It defends your system from new viruses. Basic firewall only gives you minimal protection.
  • As a virus is infected, immediately it starts executing the action code or script and spreads this information to others through any media or interface. So, don't let your computer act as a server.
  • Don't download unnecessary files or software's or scripts from internet to computer, especially .exe and autorun files.
  • Watch out for fake emails and email address. Do not open every mail you get and take precaution not to click every link in that mail. Some spam mails.
  • Enable all Antivirus and Internet Security software automatic updates to keep your system more safe and secure.
Take a look at our next tutorials on how to use Antivirus software and Internet Security software programs.

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